Global Industry, Markets & Outlook
The main markets for ultralightweight aggregates (perlite, vermiculite and pumice) are in construction, insulation and horticulture. These industries take advantage of their low density, good insulation, inertness and fire resistance. Total consumption of ultralightweight aggregates was estimated at almost 14.5Mt in 2009, split between perlite (3.5Mt), vermiculite (0.6Mt) and pumice (10.3Mt). Growth in consumption of perlite and vermiculite has been dominated by Asia over the last five years, as construction levels in the more mature economies of Europe and North America have fallen. Pumice consumption is more heavily influenced by local availability; Europe and the Middle East account for more than 50% of demand.
China, Greece, Turkey and the USA together accounted for 80% of world perlite output in 2009. S&B Industrial Minerals is the largest producing company, with operations in Europe and China; World Minerals in the USA and IPM Iperlit in Turkey are also major producers. Production in China comprises many small producers. Vermiculite production is concentrated in South Africa (41% of world output in 2009), the USA (21%) and China (21%). Palabora Mining Company in South Africa is the largest vermiculite supplier worldwide. W.R. Grace and Virginia Vermiculite in the USA and Xinjian Yuli Xinlong in China are also major producers. Production of pumice is concentrated in Turkey, Germany, Greece, Chile and the USA.
Prices for expanded perlite vary from US$200-560/t and are driven mainly by the costs of expanding the mineral. Pumice prices were US$40/t FOB Turkey in 2009 but are probably much lower in domestic markets. The price of unexpanded vermiculite concentrate has almost doubled since 2008, reaching US$400-850/t FOB Antwerp in mid-2011. Prices for coarse grade material, which is in short supply due to declining output from Palabora in South Africa, have risen most sharply. However, vermiculite supply from new producers could offset future declines, thereby limiting further price rises in the medium- to long- term.
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- How does the supply versus demand versus grade availability of vermiculite concentrate affect its price?
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- Occurrence and reserves of perlite
- Mining and processing of perlite
- World production of perlite
- Producers and processors of perlite by country
- International trade in perlite
- World consumption of perlite
- Occurrence and reserves of vermiculite
- Mining and processing of vermiculite
- World production of vermiculite
- Producers and processors of vermiculite by country and company
- International trade in vermiculite
- Consumption of vermiculite
- Occurrence and reserves of pumice
- Mining and processing of pumice
- World production of pumice/pumicite
- Producers and processors of pumice by country and company
- International trade in pumice/pumicite
- World consumption of pumice/pumicite
- End uses for perlite, vermiculite and pumice
- Prices of perlite, vermiculite and pumice