Understanding potential future sources of supply is key to identifying potential bottlenecks as well as opportunities.
Automotive electrification and energy storage will provide strong demand for lithium-ion battery raw materials over coming decades.
To understand the potential of new sources of raw materials, Roskill has reviewed the plans of developers evaluating greenfield projects that could contribute to supply in the 2020s.
For each project, the report provides a summary, outlook, critical influencing factors, location and infrastructure, project history, geology, resources, development plans, capital intensity, operating margin and economic analysis with comparative calculations of net present value, internal rate of return, payback and project incentive pricing.
There are a significant number of advanced graphite projects, located principally in Africa, Australia and Canada, with several planning value-added products to meet end user requirements.
China continues to dominate graphite production and demand however, it has begun to increase its imports of flake graphite as its own mining costs continue to rise with increasing labour, energy, and environmental costs. In 2018, China received an estimated 60.3kt of flake graphite imports compared to just 5.5kt in 2017. Increases have come mainly from Africa, where the Chinese government is encouraging trade by means of zero tariffs on imported goods.
There will be profiles on 13 of the most advanced projects that are yet to secure financing.