Understanding potential future sources of supply is key to identifying potential bottlenecks as well as opportunities.
Automotive electrification and energy storage will provide strong demand for lithium-ion battery raw materials over coming decades. To understand the potential of new sources of raw materials, Roskill has reviewed the plans of developers evaluating greenfield projects that could contribute to supply in the 2020s.
For each project, the report provides a summary, outlook, critical influencing factors, location and infrastructure, project history, geology, resources, development plans and economics including calculation of net present value.
Lithium has witnessed a significant boost to exploration and development work since 2016. The report evaluates the potential for additional lithium production from hard rock, brine and clay sources, including from the current main centres of activity: Australia, North and South America, Europe and Africa.
Nickel is already a large-scale business, but one that requires significant capital investment per tonne of new capacity. It is also an industry that needs to transition legacy and new projects from metallic to chemical industry focus. Activity is currently centred on Southeast Asia, Australia and Brazil, with these and other projects reviewed for their potential as new sources of supply.
As a mostly by-product metal, potential new cobalt sources are evaluated from both copper and nickel sources, with a focus on DRC copper-based by-product, and nickel-based output from the nickel projects reviewed above. Numerous primary cobalt projects have spring-up, largely in Canada and Australia, but there is also the potential for cobalt driving DRC-based production if the economics support it.
There are a significant number of advanced graphite projects, located principally in Africa, Australia and Canada, with several planning value-added products to meet end user requirements.